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Cervical Cancer





National Cervical Cancer Coalition
Information about the organization as well as on the Pap smear, HPV, treatment
and emotional support.

MedlinePlus: Cervical Cancer
Latest News; High Cervical Cancer Rates Sign of Larger Problems (07/22/2005, ...
From the National Institutes of Health; Cervical Cancer (National Cancer ...

Cervical Cancer - oncologychannel
Cervical cancer develops in the lining of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus
that enters the vagina. Normal cervical cells change to precancerous then ...

CancerBACUP : Cervical cancer information centre
Cervical cancer information centre. General. The cervix What is cancer? ...
See information on... Cervical screening Go to cervical cancer Q&As ...

ACS :: What Is Cervical Cancer?
Cancer of the cervix (also known as cervical cancer) begins in the lining of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb). The upper part, or body of the uterus, is where a fetus grows. The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). The part of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus is called the endocervix. The part next to the vagina is the ectocervix. Most cervical cancers start where these 2 parts meet....

Cervical Cancer
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Screening for Cervical Cancer and Prevention ...
The prognosis for patients with cervical cancer is markedly affected by the ...

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is cancer in the cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus
... The good news is that there are ways to help prevent cervical cancer. ...

Latest CervicalCancerTreatments
Cancer Group Institute provides the latest information on the most effective
traditional and alternative cancer treatments available.




Cervical canceris a malignancyof the cervix. Worldwide, it is the second most common cancerof women. It may present with vaginal bleedingbut symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in advanced stages, which has made cervical cancer the focus of intense screening efforts utilizing the Pap smear. Most scientific studies point to human papillomavirus(HPV) infection as a necessary pre-requisite for development of cervical cancer. Treatment is with surgery(including cryosurgery) in early stages and chemotherapyand radiotherapyin advanced stages of the disease.


Signs and symptoms
The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic(Canavan & Doshi, 2000). Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding or (rarely) a vaginal mass may indicate the presence of malignancy. In advanced disease, metastasesmay be present in the abdomen, lungsor elsewhere.
The possibility to identify premalignant changes on a cervical smear has made
screeningthe major cause for referral of women with possible cervical neoplasia. In many countries, women are advised to have a regular Pap smearto check for premalignant changes.[1]Recommendations for how often a Pap smear should be done vary from once a year to once every five years. If cervical cancer is detected early, it can be treated without impairing fertility. Consistently abnormal smears may be a reason for further diagnosis despite complete absence of symptoms.


Diagnosis
Diagnosis is made by doing a biopsyof the cervix, which often involves colposcopy, or a magnified visual inspection of the cervix aided by using an acetic acidsolution to produce color changes in precancerous or cancerous areas. A Pap smearis insufficient for the diagnosis. Many researchers recommend that since more than 99% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide contain human papillomavirus, HPV testing should be carried out together with routine cervical screening (Walboomers et al, 1999). However, given the prevalence of HPV (around 80% infection history among the sexually active population) others suggest that routine HPV testing would cause undue alarm to carriers.

Further diagnostic procedures are
loop electrical excision procedure(LEEP) and conisation, in which the inner lining of the cervix is removed to be examined pathologically. These are carried out if the biopsy confirms severe dysplasia.

Source:
Wikipedia

 

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